The title of shogun (barbarian-subduing general) was first given to military commanders in the 8th century, and in 1185 Shogun Minamoto Yoritomo became the ruler of the entire country. He established his government in Kamakura in 1192 and his descendants ruled as the Kamakura shogunate until 1333. The next three centuries, known as the Sengoku (Warring States) period, were marked by prolonged civil wars which fragmented the country into hostile fiefdoms. In 1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu reunified the country and became the shogun of Japan after his decisive victory at the battle of Sekighara. From the new capital in Edo (Tokyo), the Tokugawa shogunate ruled Japan until the restoration of imperial rule in 1868.
* Taken from the Popout Cityguide Tokyo, published by Compass Maps Ltd. UK and written by Charles Pringle